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Risk Factors and Possible Causes of Cancer

Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 05/30/2003) - This fact sheet discusses research on abortion, miscarriage, and a woman's chances of developing breast cancer later in life. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.75

Acrylamide in Food and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 07/29/2008) - This fact sheet reviews research about a possible connection between acrylamide in food and cancer risk. Acrylamide is a chemical that is used primarily for industrial purposes. It has been found in certain foods, with especially high levels in potato chips, French fries, and other foods produced by high-temperature cooking. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.96

Agricultural Health Study
(Reviewed: 03/28/2006) - In 1993, scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began a study known as the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.80

Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 01/04/2008) - A fact sheet describing studies on whether there is a link between underarm antiperspirants or deodorants and breast cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.66

Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 10/05/2006) - A fact sheet that reviews research studies on the possible connection between artificial sweeteners and cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.19

Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 05/01/2009) - A fact sheet about asbestos, asbestos-related diseases, and who to contact for more information. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.21

Aspartame and Cancer
(Reviewed: 09/12/2006) - A study of about half a million people, published in 2006, compared people who drank aspartame-containing beverages with those who did not. Results of the study showed that increasing levels of consumption were not associated with any risk of lymphomas, leukemias, or brain cancers in men or women. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.81

Ataxia Telangiectasia: Fact Sheet
(Reviewed: 01/26/2006) - Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare, recessive genetic disorder of childhood that occurs in between one out of 40,000 and one out of 100,000 persons worldwide. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.82

Benzene Causes Lowered Blood Cell Counts in Workers Exposed at Low Levels
(Reviewed: 12/02/2004) - A new study found that white blood cell counts were lowered in workers exposed to less than 1 ppm of the chemical benzene (part benzene per million parts air). National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.83

BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing
(Reviewed: 05/29/2009) - A fact sheet about the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, how BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations (changes) affect a person's risk of cancer, genetic testing for cancer risk, interpreting test results, and the benefits and risks of genetic testing. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.62.

Cancer Clusters
(Reviewed: 10/05/2006) - A fact sheet that describes what constitutes a cancer cluster and the process for reporting clusters. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.58

Cellular Telephone Use and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 09/03/2008) - This fact sheet outlines the available evidence regarding use of cellular/mobile telephones and cancer risk. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.72

DES: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 11/29/2006) - A fact sheet about DES (a synthetic form of estrogen) and the health problems of children who were exposed to DES while in the womb. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.4

Estimating Breast Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 09/05/2006) - The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool is a computer program that women and their health care providers can use to estimate a woman's chances of developing breast cancer based on several recognized risk factors. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.95

Fluoridated Water: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 06/29/2005) - A fact sheet that summarizes research studies which conclude there is no connection between fluoridated water and cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.15

Formaldehyde and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 05/07/2009) - This fact sheet discusses formaldehyde and its possible association with cancer. Includes resources for more information. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.8

H. pylori and Cancer: Fact Sheet
(Reviewed: 10/17/2006) - It has been estimated that between two percent to 20 percent of people infected with H. pylori will develop ulcers. Some evidence also links H. pylori infection to gastric cancer, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and perhaps pancreatic cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, the majority of people infected with H. pylori will not become ill from the bacteria. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.84

H. pylori and Pancreatic Cancer: Fact Sheet
(Reviewed: 06/19/2001) - A fact sheet about the study "Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity as a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer." National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.85

Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Meats
(Reviewed: 09/15/2004) - A fact sheet that explains how heterocyclic amines (HCA) are created in meat that is well done, fried, or barbecued, and how consuming these chemicals is associated with certain types of cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.25

Human Papillomaviruses and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 02/14/2008) - A fact sheet about the link between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.20

I–131 and Radioactive Fallout
(Reviewed: 12/11/2002) - Radioactive fallout refers to a variety of airborne radioactive particles that fall to the ground during and following aboveground nuclear weapons tests. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.86

Magnetic Field Exposure and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 04/21/2005) - A fact sheet about research on electric and magnetic fields and their relationship to certain cancers. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.46

Menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy Use and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 10/05/2007) - A fact sheet about the results of research on menopausal hormone replacement therapy use. Includes information about the effect of menopausal hormone replacement therapy use on the body. Also outlines the benefits and risks of using menopausal hormones. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.76

Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI) and Cancer: Fact Sheet
(Reviewed: 01/10/2003) - Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was widely used from 1940 through 1970 to treat ear dysfunctions in children and military personnel. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.87

National Cancer Institute Brain Tumor Study in Adults: Fact Sheet
(Reviewed: 12/20/2000) - In 1994, researchers at the National Cancer Institute initiated a comprehensive study on the causes of brain tumors in adults. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.88

National Cancer Institute Breast Implant Study: Fact Sheet
(Reviewed: 05/01/2006) - In 1992, researchers at the National Cancer Institute initiated a study on the long-term health effects associated with silicone breast implants. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.90

No Excess Mortality Risk Found in Counties with Nuclear Facilities
(Reviewed: 05/20/1996) - A fact sheet about an NCI survey that showed no general increased risk of death from cancer for people living in 107 U.S. counties containing or closely adjacent to 62 nuclear facilities. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.11

Obesity and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 03/16/2004) - A fact sheet that summarizes research on the potential link between obesity and cancer risk. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.70

Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 05/04/2006) - A fact sheet about research on the risk of developing cancer of the breast, cervix, liver, and ovary from the use of oral contraceptives. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.13

Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 04/30/2008) - This fact sheet describes what is known about the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk. It also describes breast cancer risk factors that are not related to pregnancy. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.77

Psychological Stress and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 04/29/2008) - A fact sheet that summarizes research studies on the relationship between stress-induced changes in the immune system and the causation of cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.17

Radon and Cancer: Questions and Answers
(Reviewed: 07/13/2004) - A fact sheet about radon, an odorless radioactive gas, and its possible association with cancer, and how to test for radon in the home. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.52

Recent Studies Regarding HPV and Cervical Cancer
(Reviewed: 07/27/2005) - ALTS and Portland Kaiser Permanente studies allowed researchers to examine whether testing for specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types -- HPV16 and HPV18 -- was more effective at predicting risk for precancerous conditions or cervical cancer than testing for a broad pool of cancer-causing, or oncogenic, HPV types. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.91.

Silicone Breast Implant Study and Breast Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 05/01/2006) - The National Cancer Institute is conducting a study to determine the long-term health effects associated with silicone breast implants, including any changes in breast cancer risk. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.92.

Simian Virus 40 and Human Cancer
(Reviewed: 04/03/2003) - This fact sheet describes research on the potential link between simian virus 40 (SV40) found in early polio vaccines and the risk of cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.93

Study Shows Link Between Antibiotic Use and Increased Risk of Breast Cancer
(Reviewed: 12/29/2004) - The authors of the study found that antibiotic use was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The more antibiotics the women in the study used, the higher their risk of breast cancer. National Cancer Institue Fact Sheet 3.94

Vasectomy and Cancer Risk
(Reviewed: 06/24/2003) - This fact sheet describes the possible relationship between vasectomy and the risk of prostate and testicular cancer. National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet 3.26



Authur/Source: National Cancer Institute - US National Institutes of Health






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